Push-ups are a basic exercise used to test stamina in civilian athletic training or physical education and commonly in military physical training. They are also a common form of punishment used in the military, school sport, or in some Martial Arts dojos..
Push-ups effectively exercise the pectoral muscles, triceps, and anterior deltoids, with ancillary benefits to the rest of the deltoids.
While the push-up primarily targets the muscles of the chest, arms, and shoulders, support required from other muscles results in a wider range of muscles integrated into the exercise. Push-up mainly  works   the  Anterior and medial deltoids (“delts”), the Triceps, the major pectoral and the minor pectoral (“pecs”).
But it also involve the posterior deltoids, the abs, the glutes and the quads as stabilizers or synergists. 
In the “full push-up”, the back and legs are straight and off the floor. There are several variations besides the common push-up as shows the video above. 
These variations are intended to put greater emphasis on the triceps or shoulder, rather than the chest muscles. When both hands are unbalanced or on uneven surfaces, this exercise works the body core. Raising the feet or hands onto elevated surfaces during the exercise emphasize the upper (minor) and lower (major) pectorals, respectively. Raising the hands with the aid of push-up bars or a dumbbell allows for greater ROM (range of motion) providing further stress for the muscles. In any variation of a push-up, a person will be lifting about 65% of his or her body weight.
 by Vic Veeraj Goyaram (africanmuscle)

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